[60] Nine aircraft fitted with General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce engines[58] were flight tested at locations ranging from the desert airfield at Edwards Air Force Base in California[61] to frigid conditions in Alaska, mainly Fairbanks International Airport. [143] The fly-by-wire system also incorporates flight envelope protection, a system that guides pilot inputs within a computer-calculated framework of operating parameters, acting to prevent stalls, overspeeds, and excessively stressful maneuvers. [251][250][252] The official accident investigation concluded in June 2014 that the pilots committed 20 to 30 minor to significant errors in their final approach, and that complexities of the automated controls contributed to the accident. [124] The 777-8 provides seating for 384 passengers and has a range of 8,730 nmi (16,170 km) while the 777-9 has seating for 426 passengers and a range of over 7,285 nmi (13,500 km). The top engineers overseeing the design of Boeing Co.’s 737 Max told congressional investigators they weren’t aware of key design decisions later identified as flaws in two fatal crashes. [118], By the late 2000s, the 777 was facing increased potential competition from Airbus' planned A350 XWB and internally from proposed 787 variants,[113] both airliners that offer fuel efficiency improvements. [210] [124] Both models were to be equipped with new generation GE9X engines and feature new composite wings with folding wingtips. [26][35][42] Each design drawing was created on a three-dimensional CAD software system known as CATIA, sourced from Dassault Systemes and IBM. [94] In 1999, Boeing announced an agreement with General Electric, beating out rival proposals. [2] Emirates is the largest airline operator as of July 2018[update],[12] and is the only customer to have operated all 777 variants produced, including the -200, -200ER, -200LR, -300, -300ER, and 777F. It can accommodate up to ten abreast seating layout and has a typical 3-class capacity of 301 to 368 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles (9,700 to 15,840 km). [101] On November 10, 2005, the first -200LR set a record for the longest non-stop flight of a passenger airliner by flying 11,664 nautical miles (21,602 km) eastward from Hong Kong to London. [198] Its direct competitors have included the Airbus A340-600 and the A350-1000. [63] The first aircraft built was used by Boeing's nondestructive testing campaign from 1994 to 1996, and provided data for the -200ER and -300 programs. [74] By 1998, the 777 fleet had approached 900,000 flight hours. [10] To keep them cost efficient, operators densify their 777s for about US$10 million each, like Scoot with 402 seats in its dual-class -200s, or Cathay Pacific which switched the 3–3–3 economy layout of 777-300s to 3–4–3 to seat 396 on regional services. [232], Orders and deliveries through October 2020[1][2], Orders through October 31, 2020[1][2] and deliveries[3]. [53] Each manufacturer agreed to develop an engine in the 77,000 lbf (340 kN) and higher thrust class (a measure of jet engine output) for the world's largest twinjet. In January 2016, Boeing confirmed plans to reduce the production rate of the 777 family from 8.3 per month to 7 per month in 2017 to help close the production gap between the 777 and 777X created by a lack of new orders. [82] The -300ER, which combined the -300's added capacity with the -200ER's range, became the top-selling 777 variant in the late 2000s,[98] benefitting as airlines replaced comparable four-engine models with twinjets for their lower operating costs. [146] This capacity allows the 777-200LR to operate ultra-long-distance, trans-polar routes such as Toronto to Hong Kong. The new flight control software was to eliminate the need for the tail skid by keeping the tail off the runway surface regardless of the extent to which pilots command the elevators. [142], In designing the 777 as its first fly-by-wire commercial aircraft, Boeing decided to retain conventional control yokes rather than change to sidestick controllers as used in many fly-by-wire fighter aircraft and in many Airbus airliners. [93], A more powerful engine in the thrust class of 100,000 lbf (440 kN) was required, leading to talks between Boeing and engine manufacturers. [90] GE was proposing a 454 kN (102,000 lbf) GE90-102B, while P&W offered its 436 kN (98,000 lbf) PW4098 and R-R was proposing a 437 kN (98,000 lbf) Trent 8100. These changes were to increase fuel efficiency and allow airlines to add 14 additional seats to the airplane, increasing per seat fuel efficiency by 5%. [73] By June 1997, orders for the 777 numbered 323 from 25 airlines, including satisfied launch customers that had ordered additional aircraft. [197], Since its launch, the -300ER has been a primary driver of the twinjet's sales past the rival A330/340 series. [165], Boeing uses two characteristics – fuselage length and range – to define its 777 models. [137] This system can be overridden by the pilot if deemed necessary. [169] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft type designator system adds a preceding manufacturer letter, in this case "B" for Boeing, hence "B772" or "B773". [82][86], The first generation of Boeing 777 models, the -200, -200ER, and -300 have since been known collectively as Boeing 777 Classics. In 2011, Flight International reported that Boeing is considering replacing the Signature Interior on the 777 with a new interior similar to that on the 787, as part of a move towards a "common cabin experience" across all Boeing platforms. [24] McDonnell Douglas was working on the MD-11, a stretched and upgraded successor of the DC-10,[24] while Airbus was developing its A330 and A340 series. Two passengers, who had not been wearing their seatbelts, were ejected from the aircraft during the crash and were killed. [209] [208] After having considered a -200ER P2F program, Boeing was hoping to conclude its study by the Fall as the 777X replacing aging -300ERs from 2020 will generate feedstock. [108][109], Initially second to the 747 as Boeing's most profitable jetliner,[110] the 777 became the company's most lucrative model in the 2000s. [82] At 242.4 ft (73.9 m) in length, the -300 became the longest airliner yet produced (until the A340-600), and had a 20 percent greater overall capacity than the standard length model. The aircraft landed without further incident. North, David. [142] Further details released in 2014 included re-sculpted cabin sidewalls for greater interior room, noise-dampening technology, and higher cabin humidity. There were 47 injuries and no fatalities. agl, the right engine of G-YMMM ceased responding to autothrottle commands for increased power and instead the power reduced on both engines. "Mind the gap". [82] Thirty-three customers received 422 deliveries, with no unfilled orders as of April 2019[update]. [154], The original 777 interior, also known as the Boeing Signature Interior, features curved panels, larger overhead bins, and indirect lighting. [161][162] The 747-8 and 767-400ER have also adopted the larger, more rounded windows of the original 777. [37] New production methodologies were developed, including a turn machine that could rotate fuselage subassemblies 180 degrees, giving workers access to upper body sections. Boeing customers that have received the most 777s are Emirates, Singapore Airlines, United Airlines, ILFC, and American Airlines. [75], Following the introduction of the -200ER, Boeing turned its attention to a stretched version of the airliner. [170] Designations may append a range identifier like "B77W" for the 777-300ER by the ICAO,[170] "77W" for the IATA,[169] though the -200ER is a company marketing designation and not certificated as such. [61], The first Rolls-Royce Trent 877-powered aircraft was delivered to Thai Airways International on March 31, 1996,[70] completing the introduction of the three powerplants initially developed for the airliner. [123], In November 2013, with orders and commitments totaling 259 aircraft from Lufthansa, Emirates, Qatar Airways, and Etihad Airways, Boeing formally launched the 777X program, the third generation of the 777 (not to be confused with the 777-X variants, which were the second generation of the aircraft), with two models: the 777-8 and 777-9. The 777 was designed to bridge the gap between Boeing's 767 and 747, and to replace older DC-10s or L-1011s. [119] In 2010, the variant further received a 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) maximum zero-fuel weight increase, equivalent to a higher payload of 20–25 passengers; its GE90-115B1 engines received a 1–2.5 percent thrust enhancement for increased takeoff weights at higher-altitude airports. [142], The airframe incorporates the use of composite materials, which comprise nine percent of its original structural weight (all models outside the 777-8 and 777-9). [263], The fourth confirmed hull loss occurred on July 17, 2014, when a 777-200ER, bound for Kuala Lumpur from Amsterdam as Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17), broke up in mid-air and crashed[264] in the Donetsk province in eastern Ukraine, after being hit by an anti-aircraft missile. These long haul variants feature 110,000–115,300 lbf (489–513 kN) GE90 engines and extended raked wingtips. [137] The fly-by-wire system is supplemented by mechanical backup. [2], The 777-300ER ("ER" for Extended Range) is the B-market version of the -300. [54] By the start of production, the program had amassed 118 firm orders, with options for 95 more from 10 airlines. The last Boeing 777 to crash was a British Airways jet en route from Beijing to London's Heathrow airport, which crash landed short of the runway in … The 777 entered service with the launch customer, United Airlines, on June 7, 1995. [156] Several aircraft have also been fitted with VIP interiors for non-airline use. [202], The 777 Freighter (777F) is an all-cargo version of the twinjet, and shares features with the -200LR; these include its airframe, engines,[203] and fuel capacity. The aircraft, operated by British Airways, suffered fire damage to the lower wing p… [51] An agreement between Boeing and the Japan Aircraft Development Corporation, representing Japanese aerospace contractors, made the latter risk-sharing partners for 20 percent of the entire development program. [10] The longer range 777-300ER with a MTOW of 766,000–775,000 lb (347–352 t) entered service in 2004, the ultra long-range 777-200LR in 2006, and the 777F freighter in 2009. It was delivered new to Asiana Airlines on March 7, 2006, and at the time of the crash had accumulated 37,120 flight hours and 5,388 (takeoff-and-landing) cycles. [37] ETOPS certification was also a priority for United,[38] given the overwater portion of United's Hawaii routes. This reduction led to a loss of airspeed and the aircraft touched about1000 feet (330m) short of the runway. [208] New-build 777-300ER freighters may maintain the delivery rate at five per month, to bridge the production gap until the 777X is delivered. ", "AF Identifies Boeing 747-8 platform for next Air Force One", "Still Climbing: 777 Soars Past 2,000 Orders", "Historic Cathay 777 heads for US museum", "Cathay Pacific, Boeing to donate world's 1st 777 to aviation museum", "Safety Recommendation: In reply refer to: A-09-17 (Urgent) and −18", "British Airways Flight 2019 ground fire", "Report on the accident to Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, at London Heathrow Airport on 17 January 2008", "American investigates as 777 engine fails to respond to throttle", "NTSB Investigates B777 Uncommanded Engine Rollback", "Ice 'probable cause' of Heathrow crash-landing", "One Asiana victim killed by a vehicle, not plane crash - coroner", "Asiana 777-200ER crashes at San Francisco airport", "Pilot Error Eyed in San Francisco Plane Crash", "Asiana Airlines flight 214 crash caused by Boeing planes being 'overly complicated, "Night search for missing 777 to test Malaysia and Vietnam", "Friday, March 14, 12:00 AM MYT +0800 Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident - 18th Media Statement", "Flight MH370 'crashed in south Indian Ocean' - Malaysia PM", "Malaysia declares MH370's disappearance an accident", http://edition.cnn.com/2014/03/16/world/asia/malaysia-airlines-plane/index.html, https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/missing-malaysia-airlines-flight-fbi-3276536, "MH370: What's next in the investigation?

Pourquoi Le Vaccin Pneumovax, Spot Led Dimmable, Dédouanement Voiture Maroc 2020, Avis Lycée International Saint-germain-en-laye, Fortune Messi 2020, Classement école Des Beaux-arts France, Support Bague Argent Pour Création Bijoux,